Special reports

Middle income transition

Eight things you should know about middle-income transitions

Building on recent analytical work on the policies needed to sustain long-term economic growth, boost innovation and promote equality of opportunity, the report distils eight key facts about transitions from low-income to middle-income to high-income status (middle-income transitions). The analysis emphasises aspects of these transitions that have been changing over time as opposed to those that remain broadly unchanged.

Life in transition surveys

Life in Transition survey I

(2011). In 2006 the EBRD, in collaboration with the World Bank, carried out a survey of 29,000 individuals across 29 countries to assess public attitudes, well-being and the impact of economic and political change. This publication summarises some of the main results of this survey.

Life in Transition survey II

(2011). The second EBRD/Word Bank survey in late 2010 looked at the public attitudes, well-being and the impacts of economic and political change in over 30,000 households in 34 countries. It provides evidence of how the global economic crisis affected lives.

Life in Transition survey III

(2016). This EBRD/World Bank report draws on findings from the largest poll of its kind to assess life satisfaction, the role of corruption and the gender divide in 51,000 households in 34 transition countries in central and eastern Europe, as well as Turkey, Cyprus and Greece.

Food security

Private Sector for Food Security Initiative - Annual Report 2015

(2016). This report describes how the EBRD’s Private Sector for Food Security supports the agribusiness sector, champions the role of private companies in boosting food production, improves food quality and sets incentives to create the right policy environment.

Food security and the transition region

(2011). This joint EBRD/FAO report explores the specific bottlenecks that the transition region is facing in fulfilling its potential in domestic and global food markets. How can the private sector unlock the region’s agricultural potential? What has been the impact of recent public policies on food prices?

Energy security

20 years of investing in the green economy

(2012). This special report looks back at how the EBRD has promoted environmental and social sustainability through its investments in projects, financial intermediaries and technical cooperation programmes over the last 20 years.

The Low Carbon Transition

(2011). A special report on climate change mitigation in EBRD countries from central Europe to central Asia, which demonstrates that these countries need to be part of the energy-industrial revolution, adapt their economies and avoid being left behind.

Securing sustainable energy in transition economies

(2008). This publication demonstrates that there is significant scope to reduce the carbon footprint of the energy sector in the transition region, both by reducing energy use per unit of output and by switching to low carbon energy sources.


Enhancing women’s voice, agency and participation in the economy

(2015). The report examines the impact of legal frameworks and social norms on women in Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey, and focuses especially on the reasons why women’s labour force participation is so low.


Transition and transition impact

(2010). This review discusses the EBRD’s approach to measuring and monitoring transition up until 2010, and proposes a rethink of the conceptual framework to reflect current thinking about dynamic institutional change and its impact on economic development. 

Diversifying Russia - Harnessing regional diversity

(2012). This special report examines in detail the policies that could help Russia achieve economic diversification. It pays particular attention to Russia’s regional diversity and uses evidence from a number of surveys conducted jointly by the EBRD and the World Bank. 

Belarus: Comparative Research on Industrial
Parks and Special Economic Zones

(2018). The report is part of a project studying the establishment of Chinese development zones and industrial parks in countries of the Belt and Road Initiative. Belarus has accumulated experience in the design and implementation of economic incentives to promote business development, exports and foreign direct investment inflows in the country. The creation of free economic zones and the High-Tech Parkwere effective policy instruments in the late 1990s and 2000s. The Great Stone Industrial Park is the latest example of the state’s economic policy to boost investments and exports, based on previous Belarusian experience and Chinese development experience on the Suzhou Industrial Park.

A proactive and steady approach for the building of the China-Belarus Industrial Park 

(2018). China and Belarus are committed to building the China-Belarus Industrial Park into an international city that is eco-friendly, liveable, dynamic and innovative, as well as a signature project on the Silk Road Economic Belt. This publication, prepared by the EBRD and the Center for International Knowledge on Development, China (CIKD), discusses its evolution and proposes a number of recommendations to ensure the Industrial Park’s future sustainable growth and development. 

Impact briefs

Group lending or individual lending?

(2012). Microfinance institutions across the world are moving from group lending to individual lending. Using data from  a randomised field experiment in Mongolia, this Brief presents some evidence on how types of microcredit affect borrowers.

Microfinance at the margin: Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

(2012). A substantial part of the world’s population has no or only limited access to formal financial services. This Brief draws on a randomised field experiment in Bosnia and Herzegovina to analyse to what extent a lack of credit may inhibit entrepreneurship and perpetuate poverty.

The impact of microcredit: evidence from across the world

(2015). Microcredit is designed to support entrepreneurship and alleviate poverty. Yet, this Brief explains that recent research from across seven countries has shown that giving poor people access to microcredit does not lead to a substantial increase in household income.



The fiscal implications for Kazakhstan of worldwide
transition to a greener global economy

(2018) With a focus on the oil and gas sectors, this paper analyses the fiscal risks that worldwide transition to a greener global economy could pose for Kazakhstan, a country where oil accounts for roughly 50 per cent of exports and is a major source of government revenue.

Government Assets: Risks and Opportunities in a
Changing Climate Policy Landscape

(2016). This publication helps policy-makers and stakeholders better understand how issues around climate related policies affect national budgets, and offers suggestions on developing appropriate strategies.